Tuesday, May 26, 2020
In what is arguably his best known work, Charles Dickens addresses the blatant gender inequality that ran rampant in the 1800s. Oliver Twist confronts the disheartening public view of not only women in lower social classes, like Nancy, but also the stereotypes placed on the actions of women in the upper classes, such as Rose and Mrs. Bedwin. Though he may exemplify this inequality through several female characters and their interactions with their male counterparts, Dickens is one of the first to paint these women as at least somewhat conscious beings who are capable of some thought process. He approached his female characters with an attitude of change from their Ã¢â¬Å"roles.Ã¢â¬ Instead of seeing England as Ã¢â¬Å"a patriarchal model which reserved power and privilege for men,Ã¢â¬ (Marsh) he chose to give his female characters more of a role in their own lives, allowing them to develop as actual figures rather than slump in the background, at least in his literature. However , Dickens was well aware of the expectations of women in 19th century England: he knew that women were considered Ã¢â¬Å"physically weaker yet morally superior to menÃ¢â¬ and that they were considered to be Ã¢â¬Å"best suited to the domestic sphereÃ¢â¬ (Hughes). By accepting these stereotypes, Dickens is able to both prove them wrong and to write strong female characters who are capable of handling issues such as prostitution, loyalty, family, and injustice. He is clear, however, that Oliver Twist does not take place in a fairytale version of England, writing other characters as they would be in the set time period. Gender inequality in Oliver Twist cannot be discussed without raising the adjacent issue of social inequality. Though upper class women were not treated as equal to the men in their lives, they at least received an education and were spoken to with some level of respect, unlike their lower class equivalents. Even when providing valid and important information Nancy is treated with little to no respect, being told Ã¢â¬Å"I will not suffer the young lady to go any farther. Many people would have distrusted you too much to have come even so far, but you see I am willing to humour you,Ã¢â¬ by Mr. Brownlow (Dickens 491). He is clearly favoring Rose, the Ã¢â¬Å"young ladyÃ¢â¬ , by not making her Ã¢â¬Å"go any furtherÃ¢â¬ , while at the same time disrespecting Nancy, someone who is obviously part of the lower class, by speaking about distrust. Though Mr. Brownlow may have an actual reason to make this judgment, since Nancy was late to their initial meeting, he is largely basing his j udgment on her social status and her Ã¢â¬Å"occupation.Ã¢â¬ True to the time period, Brownlow believes that Nancy is a disease ridden prostitute, and sees her as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the shadow that haunted the well-run middle-class homeÃ¢â¬ (Hughes). In this same passage he continues to question Nancy about their location: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦for what purpose can you have brought us to this strange place?Ã¢â¬ (Dickens 491) Nancy, not the complete idiot Brownlow believes her to be, is well aware that Fagin or Sikes could be watching if they were to speak Ã¢â¬Å"where it is light, and there is something stirringÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Dickens 491) as Brownlow keeps suggesting. However, even as Nancy voices these concerns, speaking of Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦horrible thoughts of death, and shrouds with blood upon themÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ and believing she Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦saw Ã¢â¬ËcoffinÃ¢â¬â¢ written in every page of the bookÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Dickens 492) Brownlow refuses to listen, citing her imagination and st ating that coffins pass him often as well. Furthermore, by accompanying Rose to this meeting Brownlow is acting as if she cannot handle herself alone at night. Mr. Brownlow is not considered a Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ character, but his actions involving Nancy and Rose make us question his opinion of women, and whether or not he finds them capable of anything. This is not saying that he thinks they are lacking intelligence. But does he believe that women are capable of completing anything without at least partial assistance from a man? Dickens was no stranger to prostitution and the issues that revolved around it, but not in the Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ way of being a customer. He was responsible for cofounding the Magdalen House, preparing former prostitutes for a new life in Australia; even though he was not the first to try to reform prostitutes, he at least knew that they were not the only cause of the Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËproblemsÃ¢â¬â¢ associated with prostitutionÃ¢â¬ (Hughes). This reasonably assures some balance in his writing, as does the fact that he lived a life similar to Olivers, working in WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s blacking factory due to his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s bad debt and living in Portsmouth, a city on the south coast of England (BBC News). His credibility is now evident not only because of his childhood, but also because of the imagery within his writing and how it coincides with EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s environment at this time. Each scene is expertly described to make the reader feel as though they are with Noah at the Th ames, watching Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦necessarily unseen by any others on the stairs who chance to be above him, if only a stepÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Dickens 490). Then, just a moment later, they are with Nancy, hearing the Ã¢â¬Å"something so uncommon in her mannerÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ and having Ã¢â¬Å" the blood chilled within himÃ¢â¬ (Dickens 492). Dickens is sure to immerse his reader in these surroundings and not allow the reader to leave until the story is over. This is concurs with Dickenss master use of syntax, defined as the way in which linguistic elements are put together to form constituents. Though his detailed descriptions may be attributed to the fact he was paid by the word, it does not mean he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t use his words well. His descriptions of locations as well as characters are incredible, and image inspiring; Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢he has a lurking walkÃ¢â¬ ¦his eyes are sunk in his head so much deeper than any other manÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦his lips are discoloured and disfigured with the ma rks of teethÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Dickens 496). These are only partial descriptors, yet Charles Dickens creates an entire character. This character is already shady, but it is easy to picture him slipping into shadows and disappearing without issue, all from portions of DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ descriptions. Charles Dickens was by no means a modern feminist; in fact, there are accusations of him abusing women and cheating on his wife with multiple younger partners. His belief that women should be angels of the house could never coincide with feminist ideals. However, his writings gave feminists a platform to argue against the blatant gender inequality in nineteenth century England. His vibrant descriptions of the brutal behavior towards lower class women, compared to the simple disrespect seen by their upper class counterparts, portrays both the gender inequality and the social inequality within such detrimental distinctions. Dickens was well aware of the social stigma surrounding prostitutes and the Ã¢â¬Å"problemsÃ¢â¬ they faced, but still chose to remain accurate to the time period and to create a strong, lower class character who, in the end, helped bring Oliver happiness at the expense of her own life. Citations: Marsh, Jan. Victoria and Albert Museum. , Online Museum, Web Team, [emailprotected] Victoria and Albert Museum, n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2015. Hughes, Kathryn. Gender Roles in the 19th Century. British Library. British Library, n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2015. Charles Dickens (1812 1870). BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2015. Dickens, Charles. Chapter 1, 41-48. Oliver Twist. New York: Knopf, 1992. N. pag. Print.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
The Sea Turtle Rescue Leah and her friend, Josey, have been best friends since they were in kindergarten. They live next door to each other, right on the shore of the beach. Leah is tall and muscular. She has brown hair and eyes as blue as the ocean. She is on both the soccer and surf team. Leah doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really enjoy school. In contrast, Josey has hair like the golden sky on a sunny day and chocolate brown eyes. She is short and skinny. Josey is on the mathletes team and loves school. They seem like opposites of each other but they do have a lot in common. Josey and Leah both love hanging out at their favorite cafe, The Beachside Cafe. Also, they both love all marine animals and really enjoy spending their free time at the beach. JoseyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There was only one type of net legal in Beach Town which was a net that could only catch fish not dolphins, sea turtles or any other big marine animals. Leah was so mad she thought she was going to burst. Ã¢â¬Å"Who would do such a thing?Ã¢â¬ Leah said angrily. She answered herself by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"We donÃ¢â¬â¢t know but we need to catch whoever it was.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, no, no!Ã¢â¬ exclaimed her dad. Ã¢â¬Å"You are not getting involved. This is up to the police to handle.Ã¢â¬ Josey glanced at Leah and they both mouthed to each other that they wouldnt stop searching until they found the person guilty of this crime. They needed to help put a stop to this illegal fishing and protect other animals. Leah said, Ã¢â¬Å"This person who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care about sea turtles is going down.Ã¢â¬ The next day Leah and Josey got up early in the morning and met at The Beachside Cafe. Right when they walked through the white wooden doors, they smelled the freshly brewed coffee and lemon scones right out of the oven. The cafe was normally busy and crowded, but that morning there were only two men that neither of them knew. Usually, everyone knew each other in their small town. Leah noticed that one of the men had shifty eyes like he was nervous and he was having a conversation with the other man. Their heads were together in the middle of the table and they were whispering to each other, but Leah couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make out what they were saying. Then Darlene, the waitress, walked over andShow MoreRelatedFinding Nemo Summary826 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSummary Essay: Finding Nemo This undersea movie is introduced with a married couple of clownfish admiring their new home by the drop off. While talking about their future plans and getting ready for their clutch of eggs to hatch, a barracuda attacks them, leaving Marlin, the husband, unconscious, a widower, and a father of one fish, Nemo. The movie then transitions to years later on NemoÃ¢â¬â¢s first day of school. While ecstatic to meet his classmates, teacher, and the independence of going to schoolRead MoreLife Of Pi : Humans And Animals Should Do Anything Necessary2615 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesTheme Essay Life of Pi shows that humans and animals should do anything necessary to survive whatever challenges they face to live instead of just accepting death. Whatever ways that help one to survive are necessary, even if they compromise personal values, are vicious, or are wicked. Pi, a human; a hyena, and a blind man all fight to survive in a variety of ways that are examples of this thesis. Pi quits his vegetarian diet and also chooses to live on a raft next to a bengal tiger on a lifeboatRead More Shipping and the Great Barrier Reef Essay4636 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesShipping and the Great Barrier Reef AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is an unparalleled marine ecosystem that holds rank as one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most valuable natural wonders. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Case of Nike: Review Analysis 3 Over the decades, globalization, where economic integration across border allow businesses to expand beyond their domestic boundaries. (Malamud, V. Rotenberg, Y. (2010)); has become a phenomenon that is seen across the globe. Businesses large and both small are able to compete, produce, and sell their products without limits to either demographic or geographic factors. This allows company s to enlarge their base, their workforce, their consumers, and therefore their profits. Of course, as we learned, globalization isn t without it s risk that can be apparent in today s world. As globalization does have negative impacts in disregarding needs for developing individuals in those countries, and it mayÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Nevertheless, as we further learned, globalization also has it s risks and occasional threats that can come in conflict with outsourcing for businesses and the like. Nike, Inc., for instance, came under scrutiny and serious allegations including Human Rights: in several of those countries such as Indonesia, because of poor conditions of workplaces, poor wages, forced overtime work, and even child labor in come instances. These allegations have become an example to the World of what globalization, if taken without certain security and countability measures; may effect the individuals heavily and to the point that it turns into a situation of diminishing returns. Criticism went out, where stories of these mistreatments were put out on news publications. Nike, Inc., at the time these situations and concerns were brought up, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t put much effort on the patter, stating that these factories were independently owned and they had no idea of that or of manufacturing. However, as time passed, they did come out and instruct the subcontractors to put an end to applying for exemptions, for workers under the legal age. And they later decided to raise the pay higher than the minimum wage that was increased. Similar situations like this, happened in Pakistan and Vietnam as well. Such as child labor, and safety health problems. Likewise, Nike Inc., at first denied and refused to have anything to doShow MoreRelatedNike Markeing1333 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLO3: Identify and analyse the individual elements of the extended marketing mix LO4: Apply the extended marketing mix to different marketing segments and contexts Context The purpose of this report is to apply your knowledge of marketing to Nike (a well known sports retailer). Your report should explain the concepts of marketing and illustrate segmentation, targeting and positioning using one of their products. Finally, you will analyse their marketing and devise a marketing mix for oneRead MoreNike1217 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages13/3/2013 Nike, Inc. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Case Inquiry of 7 Eleven Company. Answer: Introduction: 7 Eleven is a company that is dealing with the convenience matters. An US based company has certain branch stores all over the world In Australia, the branch store had been opened in the year 1977. It is one of the emerging stores in the history of convenience and by the time, there are almost 626 stores have been launched in various parts of the Australia. There is an enthusiasm noticed among the people to franchising the business and it resulted into an increment regarding the number of the franchisee for the store in Australia. The popularity of the stores was spreading all over and as per the annual report for the year 2005, the number of transaction had reached 185 million. The company was working as a motivation to the other franchisees of the Australia. The problem arose in the year 2008 when a rumour regarding the companys ill treatment regarding the workers had been spread. It was contended by the Fair Work Ombudsman that the company is engaging in the under payment system and violating the rules mentioned under the Employment Relationship (Abdu, 2013). An inquiry to find out the same had been initiated by the Fair Work inspectors and some shocking facts were come into light. According to the law, the duties of the company toward the employees are statutory-based and the provisions should not be violated at any cost. Therefore, any breach regarding the provisions will be treated as violation of laws and the outcomes of that can be serious in nature. Discussion: Summary of the inquiry An inquiry had been done in the office of the 7 Eleven in the year 2014 by the Fair Work inspector to find out the reasons behind the allegations made against the company. It was alleged that the company is violating the rules regarding the employment relation and the Fair Work Act 2009. The inspectors were suddenly raid in seven stores of the company and it was found that there were certain loopholes present in the stores. The company was not maintained the office record properly and there was no CCTV footage of the night shift works. There was a discrimination occurred regarding the migrated employees and they were not get their remuneration properly. The company has not followed up the rules of the International Labour Organisation. After the inquiry report has been published, the company had to face serious criticism (Bray, 2013). The outcome of the inquiry had made serious impacts on the Australian Industry and the franchisee business had to change their policies regarding the e mployees or the workers. Reason for the inquiry: It has been complained by certain workers of the company regarding the disputed remuneration system and discrimination that they have to face within the premises of the company stores. There were a number of complain had been made against the company and certain reports have been submitted to the tribunal of the Fair Work Committee. The committee had revealed that there were dissatisfaction within the employees regarding the acts of the company has been arose and the effects of this created implication on the family of the workers. In the year 2014, the Fair Work Ombudsman had made an inquiry and raid in the several stores of the company all of a sudden with an intention to trace out the allegations and the loopholes. The roots of the allegations were first time cropped up in the year 2006. It was alleged by an organisation, working for the interest of the workers that the company is gaining profits by way of cheating the migrated workers and there was no extra benefits offered to the workers for the night shift job or for the over times. Allegations were also made regarding the poor scale of money given to the workers and the company was not followed the payroll norms regarding the matter. Major findings: The Fair Work inspectors were found that the company had intricately involved in the allegation and they had made a serious breach regarding their duties. There is a non-compliance regarding the working criteria had been followed and the Fair Works Ombudsman identified the same. There was a serious laxity regarding the maintenance of the payroll record had been observed (Briton, 2015). There were no specific principles in the company regarding the compliance of the provisions of the employment relations and therefore, the company was engaged with the non-compliance procedure by not paying the proper wages to the employees. The inspectors interrogated the young staffs of the company and it was found that they are facing more trouble than the older workers are. The reason behind the troubles can be characterised as they are quite novice than the older staffs. It has also been found that the records kept by the company are disputed in nature. There was a serious discrepancy found in the records and in the CCTV footage. It had been alleged that there were a number of employees appointed in various branches of the company and they had worked in the stores at night in a daily manner. However, there were no CCTV footage regarding the same found and the employees were not getting their wages at time. Therefore, it is clear from the report of the inquiry commission that the company had failed to secure the interest of the employees and there had been a serious gap made regarding the employment relationship system . The company 7 Eleven was a popular name among the convenience stores and many persons were opted for taking the franchisee of the same. It was revealed from the report of the inquiry that more than half of the franchisees were inexperienced in that field and they did not know to manage the situation properly. The mentality of the company regarding the under payment had been clarified regarding the appointment of the employees. There was a leaning mentality of the company to appoint the migrated people observed and the company used to cheat the workers harshly (Chiao, 2013). It has been observed that the company was not kept the records properly and there were not any proof or documents that can lead towards the appointment of the migrated employees or the workers working at the night. Furthermore, the migrated workers had to face certain penalties during the works and the rules of the penalties were not according to the provisions of the Fair Work Act 2009. Gaps in the Australian Employment Relation System: Employment relation means the relation in between the workers and the employers it. Under the relationship, both thee workers and the employers have certain duties owed to each other. It is the utmost duty of the employers to secure the rights of the employees, as they are subordinate to the employers. The employees are devoted themselves in the work and the employers are gaining benefit regarding the same (Chopra, 2017). The employers are devoted to the workers reciprocally. The term workers include migrated as well as the private workers. Under the Fair Work Act and certain provisions of the ER system, it is the right of the every worker to get remuneration and extra fees for the works and if there is any breach happened, the appropriate rules will be applicable on the same. The Australian Employment Relation System is quite similar to the British system. The labour parties influence the employment relation system and the effects of the parties have been developed since 2009. The Australian economic system is very much depended on the service sector. In Australia, there is a yawning gap can be observed. The gap was created as there are certain dissimilarities cropped up regarding the definition and scope of the ER system. The primary motto of the system is to protect the interest of the employees. The acts of the employers are subjected to the rules mentioned by the Fair Work Act and the International Labour Organisation. The common rule regarding the employees is they should be paid fairly as against any job. No employees shall be discriminated by the employers during performing the job. If there is no fixed remuneration given to the employee, it is their right to get certain benefits from the employer. In the modern times, the employers at Australia are involved in the coercion process and trying to cheat the employees to get certain extra profits from the business. The employers have done manipulation and they are not paying the employees properly. In the present case, the problem arose regarding the underpayment problems and discrepancies regarding the official record (Endo, 2014). The workers are performing their job for the sake of the company and it is their right to get proper fees for the same. In case of the over time, they are entitled to get extra fees. However, in the present case, the company had not paid the employees and there were grudge regarding the same were aggravated within the workers. Therefore, it can be stated that the acts of the company had violated the terms of the employment relations and a gap has been generated regarding the same. In the federal system of Australia, States are playing certain important role regarding the Employment Relation. The States are intervened in the system to govern the political influence in the employment sectors. The economy of Australia is mostly depended on the employment sector and the States are interfered in the subject to regulate the income and prices. It is the duty of every States to maintain the balance regarding the employer and the employees. It is the foremost duty of the State to look into the employment matter so that the interest of the employees is not being harmed. Therefore, States are playing important role in the employment relation system (Grasso, 2015). The 7 Eleven company had made serious breach regarding the norms of the employment law and the interest of the employees are very much affected by the acts of the company. The company did not pay up many employees properly and the migrated employees and the fresher were discriminated by the company (Li, 2016). It was revealed by the inquiry report that the company had not maintained the records regarding the appointment of the employees and the inquiry team had to face a number of problems regarding the same. therefore, it can be said that the company was engaged into the wrongful method to earn benefits and misrepresented the image of the company by coerce the employees and the same made a gap in the Employment relation system of Australia . Implication of the inquiry: In the case of the 7 Eleven, there was a leaning mentality of the company has been observed towards the employees at large. 7 Eleven was popular in the convenience sector and the franchisee system of Australia was inter-connected with the company. The transaction amount of the company for the year 2008 was near about 183 million. However, the Australian Employment sectors were shocked when the information regarding the companys violation as against the employment laws are observed. The Fair Work Inspector in the several stores of the company has conducted an inquiry (Pekarek, 2016). The findings made by the inquiry were shown the naked truth behind the allegation and rocked the Australian industries. The sudden raid by the officials blocked all the easy pass of the company and the discrepancies were pointed out easily. Immense criticism was made in the news and in the media regarding the same and the industrial society of Australia was affected by the steps. Many leading news papers in Australia held the significance of the case and expose the various aspects of the report made by the inquiry commission. It was stated by The Guardian that the employees were affected by the arbitrary decisions of the company and many employees were beaten up when they had tried to make complaint against the waging disputes (MORAN, 2014). The grievance of the workers were accumulated regarding the under waging system of the company and almost 2500 complaints were made before the Senate Employment Committee against the company. Apart from the under waging system, discrimination regarding the workers were another emerging problem in 7 Eleven. It was alleged by many workers of the company that they had to work at night and did not get the fees in time. Sometimes, they are paid in half. Sydney Morning Herald reported that after the report of the inquiry commission got published, the illegal acts of the company came into light and the company paid a lump sum amount to the employees (Webster, 2017). It is important to create a balance between the employer and the employees and it was the primary motto of the inquiry. In the industry of Australia, the franchisee structure is very common. In the modern times, there are many allegations made against the company and the directors. Every company has the leaning nature to earn profit and they are engaging themselves in the illegal process. In Australia, there are much legislation enacted to secure the interest of the employees and certain duties have been prescribed for the company or the employers. However, breaches have been made in this respect and the case of 7 Eleven is one of the instances (Robertson, 2013). The sudden raid of the investigators are helped the other companies to get a chance to change the loopholes, if any. The under payment process is bad in nature. It affects the sentiment of the workers at large and the interest as well. The administrative system of the company had also been affected by the non-compliance natu re of the company. There were no specific compliance rule mentioned in the constitution and the rules of the company. Therefore, the employers of the company got a chance to deceive the workers and deprived them from the proper wages (Wu, 2014). However, when the report of the inquiry was come into the lights, the gap in the employment relations has been revealed. The real face of the company was exposed and it has to face criticism regarding the same. before the inquiry, there were many complaint had been made against the company but the company had not change its mentality regarding the under payment system. However, after the commencement of the inquiry, the status of the company was affected and the discrepancies were exposed (Settle, 2014). The company was paying the employees who were suffered by the wrongful acts of the company, and the company had to take oath regarding the compliance of the rules of the Fair Work Act. Other related companies were also took lesson from the case and therefore, it can be stated that the inquiry had created implication not only on the respective company, but on the Australias industry as well. Conclusion: Therefore, from the above written paragraphs, the notion has been clarified that the case of 7 Eleven has certain implication regarding the franchisee section of Australia. It has been observed that there are many Acts regarding the employment security but the employers violate the provisions of the Acts. The notion is supported by the report published on behalf of the inquiry commission. The complaints made against the company were proved by the inquiry and the loopholes were verified. Certain gaps regarding the employment relation have been made and the matters of the company were criticised by the media and the government. The scandal regarding the company had exposed the dark side of the industrial companies and the positions of the workers in the continents of Australia. References Abdu, G. (2013). Analysis of consumer behavior affecting consumer willingness to buy in 7-eleven convenience store. Universal Journal of Management, 69-75. Bray, J. R. (2013). Reflections on the Evolution of the Minimum Wage in Australia: Options for the Future. Briton, B. (2015). 7-Eleven scandal: The tip of a low-wage iceberg. Guardian (Sydney). Chiao, Y. C. (2013). FamilyMart: Responses to Competitive Rivalry in the Convenience Store Market in Taiwan. Asian Case Research Journal, 339-358. Chopra, S. . (2017). Seven-Eleven Japan Co. Kellogg School of Management Case. Endo, G. (2014). How Convenience Stores have Changed Retail and Distribution in Thailand? A Comparative Business History of 7-Eleven Stores in Japan and Thailand. (Japanese Studies Journal), 87-106. Grasso, M. (2015). The risks of underpayment. Australian Veterinary Journal, 93(1), N22. Heitner, H. . (2013). Cardiology in Family Practice. A practical guide. investigation, J. o. (2013). Reccent advances in . the molecular pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. , p2955-2968. Li, J. C. (2016). Underpayment of wages and wage distortion in China: an empirical assessment of the 20032008 period. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 26-52. Lip, . L. (2013). Stroke prevention with oral anticoagulation therapy. Circulation Journal, Volume 77(6), pp1380-1388. . Mooney. (2013). Use of dabigatran to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. .Nursing standard, Volume 27(27), , pp 35-41. MORAN, L. J. (2014). CHAPTER ELEVEN MANAGING THE CRITICAL INDEPENDENCIES. Law and Popular Culture: International Perspectives. Pekarek, A. . (2016). Unions and collective bargaining in Australia in 2015. Journal of Industrial Relations, 356-371. Robertson, S. (2013). Campus, City, Networks and Nation: Student?Migrant Activism as Socio?spatial Experience in Melbourne, Australia. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 972-988. Schalij, V. E. (2014). Amiodarone: an effective antiarrhythmic drug with unusual side effects. Heart, Volume , 96(19). Settle, P. J. (2014). Socioeconomic differences in outdoor food advertising at public transit stops across Melbourne suburbs. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 414-418. Use of dabigatran to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. (2013). Nursing standard,, Volume 27(27), pp 35-41.41. Van Erven, L., Schalij, M. J. (2010)Amiodarone: an effective antiarrhythmic drug with unusual side effects. . (2013). Heart, Volume 96(19), 96(19). Wakili, Voigt, Kb, Nattel, D. (2014). Reccent advances in the molecular pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Journal of clinical investigation, p2955-2968. Wang, J. H. (n.d.). Key success factor in ready-meal suppliers entering convenience stores. Anthropologist. Webster, J. (2017). More than underpayments and civil penaltiesTaking a strategic approach to regulatory workplace relations litigation. Journal of Industrial Relations. Wu, S. I. (2014). The correlation of CSR and consumer behavior: A study of convenience store. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 66.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Violence The last five years have seen an increase in the stand on violence in movies. As action movies with their big stars are taken to new heights every year, more people seem to argue that the violence is influencing our country's youth. Yet, each year, the amount of viewers also increases. This summer's smash hit Independence Day grossed more money than any other film in history, and it was full of violence. The other summer hits included Mission: Impossible, Courage Under Fire, and A Time to Kill. All of these movies contained violence, and all were highly acclaimed. And all, with the exception of Independence Day, were aimed toward adults who understood the violence and could separate screen violence from real violence. There is nothing wrong with having violence in film. If an adult wants to spend an evening watching Arnold Schwartzenager Save the world, then he should have that right. Film critic Hal Hinson enjoys watching movies. In fact, he fell in love with movies at the same time that he remembers being afraid for the first time. He was watching Frankenstein, and, as he described in his essay ?In Defense of Violence,? it played with his senses in such a way that he instantaneously fell in love with movies. . The danger was fake, but Hinson described that it played with his senses in such a way that he almost instantly fell in love. Hinson feels that most movie lovers were incited by the same hooks as himself. Movies were thrilling, dangerous, and mesmerizing (Hinson 581-2). Hinson says that as a culture, we like violent art. Yet this is not something that is new to today's culture. The ancient Greeks perfected the genre of tragedy with a use of violence. According to Hinson, they believed that "while violence in life is destructive, violence in art need not be; that art provides a healthy channel for the natural aggressive forces within us" (Hinson 585). Today, the Greek tragedy is not often seen, but there are other shows movies that embody and use violence. Tom and Jerry, The Three Stooges, and popular prime time shows including the highly acclaimed NYPD Blue and ER are all violent. There is a surplus of violent movies in Hollywood. Usually, the years highest moneymakers are violent. Even Oscar winning movies, those movies that are "the best of the year," have violence in them. Silence of the Lambs, Unforgiving, and In the Line of Fire are just a few. Even with all this violence on both the small and big screen, Hinson makes a clear statement that real-life violence is the problem, not movie violence. He feels that people fear screen violence because they fear we might become what is depicted on screen. Hinson feels that to enjoy violence, one must be able to distinguish between what is real and what is not (Hinson 587). Another essay, this one entitled ?Popcorn Violence,? illustrates how the type of violence seen in film and television is completely different than real life violence. The author, Roger Rosenblatt, describes how young children can be exposed to screen violence early on in life, yet the type of violence is so fictional that the connection between what is seen on television and what goes on out in the streets is never made. The example Rosenblatt uses to illustrate this point is wrestling. In professional wrestling there are good guys, such as Hulk Hogan and Randy ?Macho Man? Savage, and bad guys, which includes the likes of The Undertaker and Rowdy Piper. Every Saturday morning they go into the ring and fight. Its good versus bad. The show, of course, is humorous, as it is meant to be. The characters are so strange that they are comical. They roam around the ring, yelling and screaming, looking quite ridiculous. They play to the crowd, either making them boo or cheer. Occasionally, for example, if say Hulk Hogan is winning a fight, the bad guy's friends might join in and gang up on Hulk. All of this violence, and the kids love it (Rosenblatt 589). The same occurs in ?action? movies. There is a good guy and a bad guy, but the bad guy usually has lots of friends, and they all gang up on the good guy. Rosenblatt explains that sometimes you root for the good guys, and other times for the bad guys. He says that we root for the bad because sometimes ?you're simply bored with the good guys and the bad are beautiful?
Friday, March 13, 2020
Profile of Husband Killer Kelly Gissendaner Kelly Gissendaner received the death penalty after being convicted of being the mastermind behind the murder of her husband, Doug Gissendaner. Prosecutors said GissendanerÃ convinced her then-lover, Greg Owens, to commit the murder. Doug Gissendaner Doug Gissendaner was born in December 1966 at Crawford Long Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the oldest of three children and the only boy. His parents, Doug Sr. and Sue Gissendaner were devoted to their children and raised them to be respectful and responsible. The children grew up in aÃ happy,Ã close-knit family. However, unlike his siblings, Doug struggled in school, and it was discovered that he was dyslexic. When he finished high school in 1985, he had grown tired of constantly fighting to pass his grades and decided against his fathers wishes to go to college. Instead, he got a job working with his hands, which is where he always felt most comfortable. Greg Owen Greg Owen was born on March 17, 1971, in Clinton, Georgia. He was the second child of four born to parents Bruce and Myrtis Owen. Their third child, David, died from sudden infant death syndrome a few weeks after his birth in 1976. Greg grew up in a volatileÃ home filled with alcohol and violence. His parents were constantly moving from one town to another, putting the children in the position of always being newcomers. Friendless throughout much of their childhood, the Owen kids stuck closely together. Greg was a small child and easily intimidated. Belinda was a tough cookie that often stood up against those whoÃ decided to bullyÃ her younger and somewhat frail brother, including Bruce, their father, who violently lashed out at the children when he was drunk. For Greg, going to school was just another place to go to get picked on. He was a loner who struggled to keep his grades up. After managing to complete the eighth grade at age 14, he dropped out and went to work. Kelly Brookshire Kelly Brookshire was born in 1968 in rural Georgia. Her brother, Shane, was born a year later. Unlike the Gissendaners idyllic family, Kellys mother and father, Maxine and Larry Brookshire, liked to drink, do speed and fight. Their marriage ended after four years, partially due to Maxines infidelity. After the divorce, it took Maxine just eight days to marry her lover, Billy Wade. Maxines second marriage played out much the same as her first marriage. There was a lot of alcohol and a lot of fighting. Wade proved to be moreÃ abusiveÃ than Larry and would often lock the kids in their rooms while he beat on Maxine. He also released his ferocious temper onto the children. Throughout the years that Wade was around, he choked Kelly, and both he and Maxine would hit her with belts, flyswatters, their hand and whatever was within reach. But, for Kelly, it was theÃ mental abuseÃ that caused the deepest damage. Maxine was so busy dealing with her problems that she offered no support to Kelly when Wade constantly called her stupid and ugly and told her she was unwanted and unloved. As a result, Kelly had no self-esteem and often turned to the one place she could find pleasure; deep into her mind where fantasies of a better life gave her some joy. Abused children often find a feeling of safety at being at school, but for Kelly school was just another problem she could not solve. She was often tired and unable to concentrate and had a difficult time getting through grammar school. Unharmonious Reunion When Kelly was 10 she reunited with her birth father, Larry Brookshire, but theÃ reunion was a disappointmentÃ to Kelly.Ã She hoped to establish a father-daughter relationship with Larry, but that did not happen. After his divorce to Maxine, he remarried and had a daughter. There was no attempt on his part to fit Kelly into his new world. New Kid on the Block At about the time that Kelly was entering high school, Maxine decided to divorce Wade and start fresh in a new town. She packed up the kids and moved to Winder, Georgia, a small town located 20 minutes from Athens and an hour from Atlanta. Being a new student in a small town where most of the children grew up knowing each other made it difficult for the six-foot tall Kelly to establish friendships. When other kids were cheering on their team at the high school football games, Kelly would be working the take-out window at the local McDonalds. Maxine had strict rules concerning Kellys social life. She was not allowed to bring friends home, especially boys, and she could not date. Tagged as a loner, KellysÃ classmates had little to do with herÃ and often referred to her as trailer trash. Any friendships that did happen did not last long. That was until her senior year when she met Mitzi Smith. Seeing that Kelly appeared lonely, Mitzi reached out to her, and their friendship flourished. Pregnancy It was also during Kellys senior year that she became pregnant. She was able to hide it for several months, but into her sixth month, Mitzi along with the rest of the school could see that she was an expectant mother. She was subjected to more ridicule by her classmates, but Mitzi stood by her and helped her get through it. Throughout theÃ pregnancy, Kelly refused to give the name of the babys father. She told Mitzi it could have been either a student or another guy that she knew. Either way, she was not willing to tell the name. When Larry Brookshire found out about Kellys pregnancy he reconnected with her and the two decided that the child should have his last name. In June 1986, just two weeks after Kelly graduatedÃ high school, her son Brandon Brookshire was born. Jeff Banks A few months after Brandon was born, Kelly began dating a boy she knew in high school, Jeff Banks. A few months later they were married. The marriage lasted just six months. It ended abruptly after Larry Brookshire went after Banks with a gun because he failed to pass Larry bread during a family dinner. Now a single mother, 19-year-old Kelly moved herself and her baby back into her mothers mobile home. For the next severalÃ months, life for Kelly continued to be one dramatic episode after another. She wasÃ arrested for shoplifting, physically abused by Larry, was unable to remain employed, and turned to alcohol as a way toÃ self-medicate. Doug and Kelly Doug Gissendaner and Kelly met in March 1989 through a mutual friend. Doug was instantly attracted to Kelly and the two began dating regularly. He also took an instant liking to Kellys son Brandon. That following September they married. Any reservations Dougs parents had about the marriage was quickly put to rest when they discovered that Kelly was four months pregnant on her wedding day. After theÃ wedding, Doug and Kelly both lost their jobs and moved in with Kellys mother. It was not long before the bickering and fighting that had plagued Kellys life started up again, only this time it included Doug. But his upbringing did not include knowing how to out scream another family member. He just tried hard not to engage. The Army Wanting a steady income and benefits for his expectant wife, Doug decided to enlist in the Army. There he made a lot of friends and was well respected by his superiors. Being in the Army also allowed Doug enough money to send to Kelly to cover the bills, but Kelly spent the money on other things. When Dougs parents found out that the couples car was about to beÃ repossessed, they bailed Kelly out and paid the car notes. In August 1990, a month after their first child, Kayla, was born, Doug was shipped to Wiesbaden, Germany and Kelly and the children followed him the following month. Trouble between the two began almost immediately. When Doug was away on Army assignments for days and weeks at a time, Kelly would throw parties, and it was rumored that she was seeing other men. After several confrontations,Ã Kelly and the children returned to Georgia. When Doug returned home permanently in October 1991, life with Kelly was miserable. A month later Kelly decided to it was her turn to join the Army and Doug decided the marriage was over. They immediately filed for a separation and were finally divorced in May 1993. Doug Sr. and Sue Gissendaner breathed a sigh of relief. Kelly was nothing but trouble. They were glad she was out of their sons life for good. Jonathan Dakota Brookshire (Cody) Kelly and the Army did not get along. She figured her only way out was to get pregnant. By September she got her wish and was back home living with her mother. In November she gave birth to a boy she named Jonathan Dakota but called Cody. The boys father was an Army friend who had cancer and died months before the child was born. Once home Kelly began her usual job hopping and dating multiple men. One job that she landed was at the International Readers League of Atlanta. Her boss was Belinda Owens, and soon the two began socializing together and eventually became best friends. Belinda invited Kelly to her home one weekend, and she introduced her to her brother Owen. There was an immediate attraction between Kelly and Owen, and they became inseparable. A Bad Match Belinda kept a sharp eye over her brother as his relationship with Kelly grew. Things seemed to be great between them at first, but before long Kelly began throwing tantrums and fighting with Greg when he did not do what she wanted. Ultimately Belinda decided that Kelly was not a good match for her brother. She particularly did not like howÃ she bossed him around. When all of theirÃ fightingÃ led to a breakup, Belinda felt relief. December 1994 In December 1994, Doug and Kelly rekindled their relationship. They began attending church and working on their poor financial situation. Dougs parents were upset about the reunion and when Doug asked them for money to buy a house they refused. They had already spent thousands of dollars bailing him out of the financial disaster that Kelly had created when they were married. But their opinion failed to sway Doug, and in May 1995 the two were remarried. Doug had his family back together. But by September they were once again separated and Kelly was back seeing Greg Owen. One More Time Whether it was Dougs strong desire to have aÃ family or his deep love for Kelly, no one can say for sure, but by the beginning of 1996,Ã Kelly had convinced himÃ once again to get back together. Doug made a full commitment to the marriage, and to give Kelly the one thing she had always dreamed of having, he got a high-interest loan and bought a small three-bedroom ranch house on Meadow Trace Drive, in a subdivision in Auburn, Georgia. There he did what subdivisions Dads do- he worked on the house, did the yard work, and played with the kids. Kelly, however, filled her spare time focused on something that had nothing to do with her family or her husband. She was back in the arms of Greg Owen. February 8, 1997 Doug and Kelly Gissendaner had been in their new house for three months. On Friday, February 7, Kelly decided to take the children to her mothers house because she was going out for the night with friends from work. Doug spent the evening working on a car over at a friends house. At around 10 p.m. he decided to call it a night and headed home. Saturday he was going to be busy doing some work for the church, and he wanted a good nights sleep. After dinner and an hour spent at a dance club, Kelly told her three friends that she wanted to go home. She said she felt like something bad was going to happen and headed home around midnight. The following morning when Kelly awoke, Doug was not there. She made some calls, including one to his parents, but he was nowhere to be found. ByÃ mid-morning, a missing personsÃ reportÃ had been filed at the police station. Initial Investigation The initial investigation into Doug Gissendaners whereabouts began on the same day that he was reported as missing. A search group was sent out along the route that he was most likely to have traveled the previous night and statements were taken from family and friends. Kelly Owens was one of the first to talk with the investigators. During thatÃ meeting, she described her marriage to Doug as problem free. But interviews with family members and friends told a different story and oneÃ name, in particular, kept surfacing - Greg Owen. Odd Behavior By Sunday, Dougs car had been located abandoned on a dirt road in Gwinnett County. It had been partially burned from the inside out. On the same day that the burned-out car was found, friends and family gathered in support at Doug Sr. and Sue Gissendaners house. Kelly had also beenÃ there but decided to take the children to the circus. Dougs parents found her behavior as odd for a wife whose husband had just gone missing. The news about the car was not good, but there was still hope that Doug would be found, possibly hurt, butÃ hopefully not dead. But as more days went by the optimism began to fade. Kelly did a few television interviews and then went back to work the following Tuesday, just four days into the search for her husband. Twelve Days Later It took 12 days to find Doug Gissendaner. His body was discovered a mile from where his car had been found. What looked like a pile of trash ended up to be Doug, dead, on his knees, bent at the waist with his head and shoulders leaning forward and his forehead lying in the dirt. Wild animals had already had an opportunity toÃ do their damage to his face which was unrecognizable. AnÃ autopsy and dental recordsÃ wereÃ necessary to confirm that it was indeed Doug Gissendaner. According to the autopsy, Doug was stabbed four times in the scalp,Ã neck, and shoulder. Murder Investigation Now with aÃ murder investigationÃ to conduct, the list of people to be interviewed grew considerably, with more names added to the list daily. In the meantime, Kelly Gissendaner asked to meet with investigators again to clarify some of what she saidÃ inÃ her initial statement. She admitted that the marriage had been rocky and during one of their splits, she had been involved with Greg Owen. She said that Greg Owen had threatened to kill Doug when he learned that they were back together and working on their marriage. When asked if she was still in contact with Owen, she said only once in awhile because he called her repeatedly. But all of her candor did little to persuade investigators that she was not somehowÃ involved in her husbands murder. In the meantime, during Dougs funeral, Kelly showed more bizarre behavior when she had family and friends wait for her arrival for over an hour from the funeral home where the memorial wasÃ given to the cemetery where Doug was to be buried. They found out later that she had stopped for a bite to eat and to do some shopping at the Cracker Barrel. The Alibi As for Greg Owen, he gave detectives a solid alibi. His roommate confirmed what Gret told them, that he had been home the entire night that Doug went missing and had been picked up by a friend at 9 a.m. the following morning for work. The roommate later recanted his story and said Greg had left the apartment the night of the murder and he did not see him again until 8 a.m. the following morning. This was exactly what the detectives needed to get Greg Owen back in for questioning. Greg Owen Cracks With Owens alibi now busted into pieces, he was brought back in for more questioning. Investigator Doug Davis conducted a second interview with Greg on February 24, 1997. Detectives already strongly suspected that Kelly had first-hand knowledge about her husbands murder. Phone records showed that she and Greg Owens talked to each other 47 times during the days before Doug was murdered and, unlike what Kelly had told detectives about Owen constantly calling her, Kelly had initiated the calls 18 times. AtÃ first, Owen refused to answer any questions, but when aÃ plea dealÃ was brought to the table stating that he would get life with parole after 25 years, rather than a possible death sentence if he testified against Kelly Gissendaner, he quickly agreed and began confessing to murdering Doug. He told detectives that Kelly planned it all. First, she wanted to make sure that Doug bought the house and that they had moved into for a while before he was killed. She also wanted to secure an alibi on the night of the murder. When Owen asked her why not just divorce Doug, Kelly said he would never leave her alone. He went on to explain that on the night of the murder Kelly picked him up at his apartment, drove to her house, let him inside and provided a nightstick and a knife for Owen to use to attack Doug. She instructed him to make it look like a robbery, then left and went out with her friends while Owen waited in the house for Doug to come home. He said that Doug entered the house around 11 p.m. and OwenÃ held the knife to his neck, and then made him drive to Luke Edwards Road which is where Kelly told him to go. He then made Doug walk up an embankment and into the woods where he told him to get down on his knees. He struck him over the head with the nightstick and stabbed him, took his wedding ring and a watch, then left him to bleed to death. Next, he drove around in Dougs car until he received a page from Kelly with a code that would indicate that the murder had taken place. She then met Owen at Luke Edwards Road and wanted to see for herself that Doug was dead so she climbed the embankment and viewed his body. Then, with kerosene which Kelly provided, they burned Dougs car. Afterward, they made calls from phone booths at around the same time; then she dropped him off at his home. At thatÃ point, they agreed that they should not be seen together for a while. Kelly Gissendaner Is Arrested Detectives wasted no time in arresting Kelly for the murder of her husband. They went to her home on February 25, well afterÃ midnight made the arrest and then searched the house. This time Kelly had aÃ new story to tellÃ to the police. She admitted that she saw Greg Owen the night that Doug was murdered. She went and picked him up after he called her and asked her to meet him and he told her what he did to Doug, and then threatened to do the same to her and her children if she went to the police. The detectives and prosecutor did not believe her story. Kelly Gissendaner was charged with murder, felony murder and possession of a knife during the commission of a felony. She continued to insist that she wasÃ innocent and even turned down aÃ plea bargainÃ similar to what Greg Owen received. The Trial With no women on Georgias death row, seeking a death sentence if Gissendaner was found guilty was a risk for prosecutors, but one they decided to take. Kellys trial began on November 2, 1998. She faced a sequestered jury made up of ten women and two men. Television cameras were allowed in the courtroom. She would also be facing Doug Gissendaners father who was permitted to be in the courtroom after he gave his testimony, along with two key witnesses whose testimonies could send her straight to death row. The Witnesses Greg Owens was the states number one witness. Most of his testimony matched his confession although there were some changes. One significant difference referenced the time that Kelly showed up at the murder scene. During courtÃ testimony, he said she was there right as he murdered Doug. He also testified that instead of themÃ burning Dougs carÃ together, she tossed a soda bottle of kerosene out of the window and he retrieved and burned the car alone. Next was Laura McDuffie, an inmate that Kelly confided in and who she asked for help in finding a witness who would take the fall for $10,000 and say that she was with Owen, not Kelly, on the night of the murder. She provided McDuffie with a map of her house and a handwritten script of what the witness should say. An expert witness testified that the script was written by Gissendaner. Other witnesses for the prosecution testified about Kellys coldness upon hearing that Doug had been found murdered and about her affair with Greg Owen. One of her closest friends, Pam, testified that after Kelly was arrested, she called Pam and told her that she killed Doug. She called her again and said that Greg Owen forced her to do it by threatening to kill herself and her children. Closing Arguments The prosecutor, George Hutchinson, and Gissendaners defense lawyer, Edwin Wilson, presented strongÃ closing arguments. The Defense Wilsons argument was that the state had failed to prove Kellys guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. He referred to parts of Greg Owens testimony as unbelievable, pointing out that it did not seem possible that Doug Gissendaner would not fight Owen who was considerably smaller in height and weight. Doug had combat training and had served in a combat theater in Desert Storm. He was trained in escape and evasion, yet he followed Owens instructions to go out the door of his house, and not only get in the car but unlock the passengers side of the car so that Owen could get in. He also found it hard to believe that he would willingly drive to a deserted road, get out of the car and wait while Owen got out on his side, then come around to him, leading him up a hill, into the woods, without once trying to make a run for it or fight for his life. He also pointed out that Greg received a life sentence with the possibility of parole only if he agreed to testify against Gissendaner. He attempted to discredit the testimony of Laura McDuffie, describing her as a hardcore criminal that would do anything to scratch off some of her prison time. And as for Kellys friend, Pam, who testified that the day that Kelly was arrested that she called Pam and told her, I did it, he said she simply did not hear Kelly properly. The Prosecution During Hutchinsons closing argument, heÃ quicklyÃ pointed out that no one can say what was going through Doug Gissendaner mind when he encountered Owen with a knife inside his home. But the point was that Doug was dead, regardless of the exact chain of events that led to it. As to the attempt to discredit Pams testimony, Hutchinson said Wilson was reinventing and mischaracterizing evidence. And about the credibility of Laura McDuffie, Hutchinson pointed out that what she testified about did not really matter. The evidence was all that the jury needed. The script that handwriting experts testified was written by Kelly and the detailed drawing of the interior of her house backed up the testimony. He referenced the 47 phone calls between Kelly and Greg that took place days before the murder and how that exchange suddenly stoppedÃ afterward, asking the question as to why would that pattern of activity suddenly stop? The Verdict and Sentence In the end, it took the jury two short hours to return a verdict of guilty. During the penalty phase of the trial both sides fought hard, but again, after two hours the jury had made their decision: The state of Georgia versus Kelly Renee Gissendaner, verdict as to sentencing, we the jury find beyond a reasonable doubt that statutory aggravating circumstances do exist in this case. We the juryÃ fix the sentence of death... Since her conviction, Gissendaner has been incarcerated at Arrendale State Prison, where she is isolated since she is the only woman out of 84 death row inmates. Execution Scheduled Kelly Gissendaner was scheduled to die by lethal injection on February 25, 2015. However, the execution was postponed to March 2, 2015, due to bad weather conditions. Gissendaner exhausted all her appeals which included a 53-page application for clemency with testimonials from a former prison warden, members of the clergy and friends and family. The victims father, Doug Gissendaner, has fought equally hard to make certain that hisÃ ex- daughter-in-lawsÃ sentence is carried out. A statement released by the Gissendaner family after the appeal for clemency was rejected read: Ã¢â¬Å"This has been a long, hard, heartbreaking road for us. Now that this chapter in this nightmare is over, Doug would want us and all of the people who loved him to find peace, to remember all the happy times and cherish memories we have of him. We should all strive every day to be the kind of person he was. Never forget him. Gissendaner Executed September 29, 2015 After multiple eleventh-hour appeals and delays, Kelly Renee Gissendaner, Georgias only woman on death row, was executed by lethal injection, prison officials said. Scheduled to die at 7 p.m. Tuesday, she died by injection ofÃ pentobarbitalÃ at 12:21 a.m. Wednesday. The U.S. Supreme Court denied stays of execution three times Tuesday, Georgias state Supreme Court denied a stay and the Georgia Board of Pardons and Paroles declined to grant her clemency following a hearing at which Gissendaners supporters offered new testimony. Even Pope Francis became involved in the case, requesting mercy for the woman who conspired with her adulterous lover to stab her husband to death in February 1997. Gissendaner was the first woman executed in Georgia in 70 years. Footnotes: The murder occurred on February 7, 1997. Gissendaner was indicted on April 30, 1997, by the Gwinnett County Grand Jury for malice murder and felony murder. The State filed writtenÃ noticeÃ of its intent to seek the death penalty on May 6, 1997. Gissendaners trial began on November 2, 1998, and the jury found her guilty of malice murder and felony murder on November 18, 1998. The felony murder conviction was vacated by operation of law. Malcolm v. State, 263 Ga. 369(4), 434 S.E.2d 479 (1993); ?OCGA Ã § 16-1-7. On November 19, 1998, the jury fixed Gissendaners sentence at death. Gissendaner filed a motion for a new trial on December 16, 1998, which she amended on August 18, 1999, and which was denied on August 27, 1999. Gissendaner filed a notice of appeal on September 24, 1999. This appeal was docketed on November 9, 1999, and orally argued on February 29, 2000. The Supreme Court turned down her appeal on July 5, 2000. The State Board of Pardons and Paroles rejected Gissendaners appeal for clemency on February 25, 2015.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Autism Late Diagnoses - Research Proposal Example As a spectrum, it means that the earlier ASD is diagnosed, the better the chances of ensuring that the risk or rate of growth of severity does not increase to certain undesirable levels. However, there continues to be records and reports of late diagnoses of ASD in most children. In relation to the Waldorf approach to developmental stages in children, one would say that if ASD was diagnosed as early as the first stage, it would give medical experts so much hope and room for improving the lives of affected children, especially in terms of their academics. Purpose of the study Based on the background to the study presented above, the researcher seeks to set out a research work that has a purpose of identifying the developmental stages from the perspective of Waldorf approach and link this to Autism Spectrum Disorder late diagnoses. ... This purpose is made with the rationale that as much as autism may be a serious health and psychological problem for children, it should not be the basis for which children should suffer or be left behind in any sense in terms of their normal development as people. This is particularly so when it comes to the academic life of the children. Unfortunately though, the chances of achieving this goal reduces significantly if diagnosis is not made as early enough as possible. While looking at the issue of late diagnosis, the impact of different cultural perspectives will be linked to any possible causes. Aim and objectives To achieve the purpose of the study, an aim has been set for the study, which has further been broken down into specific objectives to signify the specific activities and tasks the researcher should be involved in to achieve the aim. The aim is given as finding the relationship between the developmental stages and autism spectrum disorder late diagnosis. The specific obj ectives to bring about this aim are given as follows. 1. To determine how the developmental stages as given by Waldorf are perceived by different cultures in terms of religious cultures, moderate cultures and liberal cultures 2. To underscore how the perception of developmental stages according to cultural differences help in avoiding or promoting late diagnoses of ASD. 3. To ascertain how children diagnosed with late with ASD can be helped to live healthy integrated lifestyles. Significance of the study Should the aims and objectives set above be achieved, there are a number of benefits that will be derived. In the first place, an understanding on the effect of cultural differences on ASD would help in finding a common perspective grounds for the issue